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24 iulie 2014

Marele Război - The Great War - La Grande Guerre - La Grande Guerra - Великая Bойна - Der Große Krieg - Голямата Bойна - A Nagy Háború - Büyük Savaşi



La 100 de ani de la începutul Marelui Război, este utilă această documentare. The Great War in a Different Light, versiunea arhivată (cea originală nu mai apare online).

Articole despre România ("Rumania"): The Fall of Bukarest as Seen by a British JournalistMemories of Rumania, Destroying the Oil-Wells in Rumania, Our New Ally Rumania, German Cavalry Attacks in the Dobrudscha, The Rumanian Soldier as I Know Him, La Guerre du Droit.

 
Pagina principală este în limba engleză. Texte în limbile: franceză / germană / spaniolă / olandeză / italiană.



Introduction

Wars are primarily about fighting and killing, but it would be a great oversimplification to state that that is all they are about. Quarrels between nations and groups of people do indeed produce misery and suffering for all those willingly or unwillingly involved, but thankfully there is much more to study and learn about the great conflicts of our time than merely the violence and destruction they caused.

Wars can set about vast changes in society, be switching points in history, can be begetters of social movements and the origin of future problems. They are also prime movers in bringing about innovation and new and different ways of doing things and of organizing society.

 
When looked at in that light, the Great War of 1914-1918 can justly be considered to be the pivotal event of the 20th century. Essentially, both the conflicts that lay at the origin of the Great War as well as the newly created enmities resulting from the Great War remained unresolved and led to a continuation of the great struggle of nations some 20 years later. Bolshevist Revolution and Cold War, Fascism and the creation of new nations and Nationalisms, all these are unintended consequences of the War of 1914-1918. Many of these problems are still with us to this day, the break-up of former Yugoslavia into ethnic divisions being but one glaring example.

On the other hand, the war set in motion social changes that would otherwise have taken much longer to manifest themselves and gain wide-spread acceptance. The idea of equality between the sexes, to give one obvious example, was given an unintended boost by the necessary wide-spread integration of females into the general work force. This in turn engendered changes in social and sexual mores, customs and socially accepted behavior.

It is worth taking a look at the Great War behind the scenes, at the everyday life of the combatants and the home front. It is interesting to read news articles and books that people of that period read, to look at the photos and illustrations that appeared in the media. Quite often they give an amazingly fresh view of the Great War, for our view has been imprinted on us by schooling, present-day history books and novels, present-day movies and television shows.

To try and get a glimpse of what people during the years of the Great War read and saw, I will try to mainly use period material on this website : news articles from magazines and excerpts from period history books. An amazing number of weekly periodicals dealing with the Great War was published in Great Britain, France, Germany and Belgium. They were often intended to be bound in volumes and kept as valued books. A wealth of material can be found in such sources, both written and photographic as well as illustrated. In fact, though now it seems to be largely forgotten or ignored, a large portion of news magazines at the time, was filled with hand-drawn illustrations. Since photographs of newsworthy subjects were not always readily available, especially scenes of actual combat and fighting, news editors resorted to the simple expedient of commissioning illustrations. This was a wide-spread practice, especially in the early days of the war. When applicable, I will try and use such forgotten illustrations.

Apart from a few exceptions, I will try to limit sections on the great battles and actual warfare. There are many other excellent sites covering this aspect of the Great War. Instead, here you will find the somewhat more unusual, the personal, the artistic, the comical and the odd type of subject-matter, hopefully displayed from a different angle.

It has been a while since this website was first started and as so often happens, things evolve differently than planned. For a variety of reasons a large part is now devoted to showing examples of the somewhat forgotten graphic art that was so abundantly produced during the Great War. Illustrations and drawings, by both famous, less famous, professional and amateur artists were not only made for personal gratification, but were also published extensively in the media. This type of art, representational and realistic, has not been appreciated overly much this past century. Nonetheless it was very representative of the popular style and taste at the time and helped shape and mould people's perceptions about events and things they could not experience or see firsthand themselves. Illustrating as a news-form, was still in competition with the use of photographs, and because of the dangerous nature of battlefields and warfare, was still a preferred and much used medium to impart images of warfare to a news hungry public. Present day history books, television and movies by their very nature, are inclined to use photographs as illustrative material. But by relying heavily and almost exclusively on the photographic record, we are apt to overlook part of the specific feel of the time of the Great War.

And that is one of the intents of this website. To try just somewhat to show what people read and saw during those long gone days of 1914 - 1918. We now have the perspective of history to look back from and make weighty and no doubt correct judgments and statements about the Great War, But people at the time experienced it differently. We may think they were misinformed and deluded, and perhaps they were, or maybe we have become incredibly cynical and mistrusting. What were once considered to be civic virtues are now thought to be quaint anachronisms at best or grand delusions at worst. Things change.

So even if what you see and read here appears at times to be heroically naive and unbelievably patriotic, touchingly romantic, and yet callous, cruel, insensitive or downright silly as well as horribly politically incorrect, remember that it is colored by the passage of time and should be appreciated accordingly.

'And always in my ears was the deep rumble of the guns, those great booming thunder blows, speaking from afar and with awful significance of the great battle, which seemed to be deciding the destiny of our civilization and the new life of nations which was to come perhaps out of all this death.'

from 'The Soul of the War' (1915) by journalist Philip Gibbs describing the Battle of the Marne



 Brave Little Belgium
The Siege of Antwerp : August-October 1914 (with extensive text and illustration galleries)
The Siege of Antwerp in Newsmagazines
Fortresses a Falling : Liége, Namur, Dinant
Iron Curtains of the First Kind : the Electrified Wire of Death
Aan den Grensdraad - Smokkelaarsleven in Lokeren (Dutch/Flemish text)
Armoured Cars on the Eastern Front : the Belgian Expeditionary Force in Russia
From Kieff to Vladivostok
A Visit to the Haelen Battlefield
Brave Little Belgium : Around the War in 80 Postcards
August 1914 in Brussels : Mobilization and Occupation
'Types' of Soldiers : a Humorous View
Belgian Prisoners in Germany
Belgian Prisoners in Germany 2
The Soldier King
Visit to King Albert in Furnes
King Albert's Men
Belgium Set Free : 1918
War Scenes in Belgium
The New Brave Belgian Army
Marching Through Belgium
Frederick Palmer in Brussels 1914
Burgomaster Adolphe Max of Brussels
Kidnapping General Leman
A Visit to Ypres
Ypres - the Unique City
Ypres Après l'Incendie (French language text)
Ypres-la-Silencieuse (French language text)
A British Reporter Visits Ypres in 1915
Louvain - from a Diplomatic Diary
The Burning of Louvain
Louvain the Forsaken
In Aerschot and Louvain
Les Allemands en Belgique (by L. H. Grondijs - French text)
The Rag-Doll of Europe - In Dinant
The Story of Liege, from Personal Investigation
Het Gemartelde Andenne, Aerschot en Leuven (by Henri Davignon) (Dutch/Flemish text)
Le Crime des Allemands à Aerschot - 1914 (French language text)
La Mort de Louvain
Les Allemands à Louvain
Belgian Newsmagazines and Periodicals during the War
'La Belgique Heroique et Martyre' : Atrocities Illustrated
'La Belgique Heroique et Martyre' : the Belgian Army in Combat
'l'Heroique Belgique : Photos from 1914
Heroic Belgium Illustrated in French Magazines
Belgium in War-Time - Atrocities Described
Atrocity Postcards
Belgian Victory Prints 1919
James Thiriar : Artist with the Belgian Army
James Thiriar : Story of the War
James Thiriar : The Yser Front
André Leynen : Artist with the Belgian Army
Joe English : First Aid Drawings
Alfred Bastien : Working for the British Press
Panorama de l'Yser : a 1920's Multimedia Presentation
An American Female Reporter on the Yser Front
An American Journalist on the Yser Front 1917
The Germans are Coming
The Germans in Belgium
War Reporters in Belgium
American Journalist Marching with the German Army in 1914
An American Journalist Visits Fort Loncin
A Visit to a Belgian Relief Station
Filming Street-Fighting in Alost, September 1914
An American Journalist in Belgium, 1914
An American Journalist in Germany and Occupied Belgium
An American Social Worker's Views on Belgium in 1916
The Wreckage of Termonde and Melle
From Antwerp to the Yser Front
A Diplomatic Diary - by Hugh Gibson of the American Legation
The True Capital of Belgium
Would Belgium Accept a German Peace?
An Australian Lady Reporter in Occupied Brussels (by Louise Mack)
A Woman's Experiences in the Great War (by Louise Mack)
A British Reporter at Furnes
A British Reporter on the Yser Front with a Volunteer Hospital in 1914-15
The British Field Hospital in Furnes
The Terrible Battle of Nieuport
British Soldiers Trapped in Belgium
The Cellar House at Pervijse / Cellar House at Pervijse Book
A British Reporter Visits Ypres in 1915
A Nurse with the British Field Hospital
A Woman in Battle : a British Lady Reporter at the Siege of Antwerp
British Nurses in Belgium, August 1914
De Belgen in Holland (Dutch language text)
The German Fury in Belgium
British Naval Brigade Interned in the Netherlands

An Eyewitness to War
True personal accounts and memoires written during or immediately after the Great War.
Soldiers and civilians tell a tale in their own words.


Tales of War
Under Fire in the Front Lines
.
The First Gas Attack : an Eyewitness Account
The First Gas-Attack - More Eyewitness Accounts
Discussing the Use of Poison Gas
Poison Gas
A Pied Piper on the Western Front : Memoires of a British Rat Officer (a comedy relief recommendation)
Great Escapes of the Great War : Personal Accounts - Including Roland Garros in Captivity
Charging a Trench
A First Visit to the Trenches
Stationed in No-Man's Land
With the British Cavalry in Battle
Winter in the West 1915
Who Fired the First Shot ?
Going on a Night Raid / Midnight Trench Raids
A German Soldier's Story
An American Volunteer in the Canadian Army
A French Soldier's Story
Extracts from Soldier's Letters
The Pluck of a Coward
Alan Seeger - American Poet in the Foreign Legion
Blowing up the Bridges
On the British Battle-Line in 1915
French Cavalry in a Mine Crater
Debout les Morts!
What I Learned on the Western Front
Tales of the French Dragoons
Kitchener's Mob - an American Volunteer in the British Army
Tales of the First BEF in 1914
Letters from American Soldiers
An American Volunteer Poilu
A Night Affair on the Western Front
The Assembly Trench
The Glory of the Trenches
War is Declared : Views in London, France, Petersburg and Asia
 
Reporters at the Front
Everybody's Got a Story to Tell
About Reporters  .
Donald Thompson : a War Photographer and Cinematographer from Kansas
E. Alexander Powell - American Reporter and Adventure Writer
Hamilton Fyfe : Editor and War-Reporter
Frederic Villiers : an Old Campaigner Goes to War for the Last Time
Philip Gibbs : Five Years on the Western Front
Ludovic H. Grondijs : Dutch Academic and Adventurer Journalist (French language texts)
A Reporter on War-Reporters
Reporters and Photographers with the British Armies
An American Reporter with the Austro-Hungarian Press Service
Richard Harding Davis on War Reporters
War Reporters on the British Front
War Reporters in Belgium
Correspondents in the Great War
Frederick Palmer : an American Reporter on the Western Front
.
Their Stories

Filming the War
A British Reporter with the Caucasian Cavalry
An American Journalist Visits German Trenches part 1
An American Journalist Visits German Trenches part 2
An American Journalist Visits French Trenches in 1915 part 1
An American Journalist Visits French Trenches in 1915 part 2
An American Novelist Visits British Trenches in 1915
The Beginning and the End as Seen by an English Reporter
Fête de la Victoire - Julliet 1919 (French language texts)
General Pershing Arrives in France - 4th of July in Paris

A British Reporter Runs the Gauntet
Unauthorized Visit to the Front
America Goes to War
The Soldier in Battle
The Story of the Zouave
Summer and Winter in British Trenches
Court-Martialed as a Spy by the French
German Wounded in France and Belgium
A British Reporter in Berlin, August 1914
Filming Street-Fighting in Alost, September 1914
Censors and Reporters (by Hamilton Fyfe)
How Paris Gets the News
A Spanish Reporter in French Front-line Trenches
Mr. Rudyard Kipling on the War in France
What I Learned on the Western Front - 1917
Jimmy Hare's First War Impressions
The First Day of the First American Battle
.
On the Plains of Northern France
Guarding the Approaches to Paris - Champagne, the Somme, Picardy, Reims

An American Reporter Visits the Forts at Maubeuge
The German Trenches at Rheims
Fighting at Festubert 1915
On the French Front in 1915
An American Journalist on the French Front in 1916
A Bayonet Charge in Picardy
From the Aisne to la Bassée
Notre-Dame de Lorette
Sacred Ruin and Hill Sinister
Fighting for the Labyrinth - la Bassée and Carency
The Triumph of Young France at Carency
Visiting the German Trenches at la Bassée
Notre Dame de La Lorette - by a Finnish Volunteer in the German Army
Everyday Life in Occupied Areas - by a Finnish Volunteer in the German Army
Amiens and the Devastated Regions of France
The Great Battle of Arras in 1917
Flamethrowers in Action on Poziere Ridge
The Canadians Fight for Vimy Ridge
The Battlefield at Cambrai
British Advance at Saint Quentin
The Great March Offensive of 1918
What I Learned on the Western Front
Footprints of the Hun
Fighting on the Aisne in 1914
A British Reporter Visits Vermelles
The Memorable Capture of Loos
Under Fire at Loos
Highlanders at Loos
'Neath Verdun - Fighting on the Eastern Marches 1914
The Great Swathe of the Lines
The Thin Brown Line at Noyons
Devastation and Some Emotions
Attack at Dawn
The Munsters in the March Retreat
Drum-Fire of 2,000 British Guns
A Scene from the German Retreat
The Epic Battles for the Hills
Back to Mons in 1918
Mons - 4 Years After
The Liberation of Lille and Valenciennes
A British Reporter Sneaks into Rheims
The Ruins of Rheims and Arras
An American Journalist Visits Rheims
The Bombardment of Rheims
A Spanish Journalist in Rheims
Rheims in 1916
A British Writer Visits Rheims - 1916
The Ghost of a Cathedral
La Destruction de Reims Racontée par un Témoin (French text)
Récit d'un Témoin du Bombardement de la Cathédrale de Reims (French text)
An American Reporter at Neuve Chapelle in 1915
The British Attack at Neuve Chapelle 1915
In the Firing-Line at Neuve Chapelle
The French Defence in Champagne
Fighting in Champagne
How the French Broke the Germans in Champagne
Fighting on the Somme
Winter Quarters on the Somme
A British Reporter Describes the First Day of the Somme
The German Side of the Somme
An American Reporter on the Somme
A Canadian Reporter Visits the Somme
A British Writer Visits the French Front on the Somme -1916
           A British Reporter in Holland
Forgotten Fronts in France
'Ils n'auront ni l'Alsace ni la Lorraine!'
.
An American Reporter visits the Russian Contingent in France
An American Lady Visits the Argonne Front in 1915 - by Edith Wharton
An American Journalist on the Alsace Front
Fighting in the Forests of the Argonne
A Quiet Day in the Argonne - 1916
In the Forests of Lorraine
Winter in Lorraine with an American Journalist
In the Bois-le-Pretre
A Spanish Journalist Visits Chalons, Lorraine, Verdun and the Argonne
A Spanish Journalist at Pont-a-Mousson
The Battefield of Nancy and the Fort du Troyon
The Iron Hand in Alsace-Lorraine
A Crusader of France - Memoirs of a Chasseur Alpin
How the French were Trapped on the Plateau near Metz
In Flanders Fields
Battles in the Ypres Salient  
.
The Hell of Passchendale
In the Trenches / Hill 60
On the Ypres Salient
The First Battle of Ypres 1914
The Incomparable Defence of Ypres
The Extraordinary Battle for Hill 60
The Second Battle of Ypres
French Marine Fuseliers at Dixmude
Fighting in the Ypres Salient in 1914
The Road to Calais
The Flanders Battlefields
An American Lady Visits the Northern Fronts - by Edith Wharton
A Visit to the Trenches- Text by Fortunino Matania
British Reporter Spotted by a German Gunner
The Victory at Messines Ridge
A British Reporter Visits Ypres in 1915
Pen Picture of the "Batter"-Field of Ypres
The Inspiring Battle of Hooge
The Miracle of the Marne and the Hell of Verdun
'On Ne Passera Pas'  
.
The Winning of the Marne
Wanderings of a British Reporter in France in August and September 1914
After the Marne - an American Journalist's Story
After the Marne - Another American Journalist's Story
Paris and the Marne
A Hilltop on the Marne - by Mildred Aldrich
Visiting the Marne Battlefields in December 1914 - by Mildred Aldrich
Paris Waits 1914
From Mons to the Marne
The Toy Drum of St. Quentin
Paris War Days - Diary of an American
Among the Ruins - by a Spanish Correspondent
The Battles of the Marne, the Aisne and the Eastern Marches
An American Reporter on the Marne Battlefields
An American Reporter on the Mons Battlefields
Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien at Mons, the Marne and the Aisne
The Three Days Battle of Mons - the Retreat from Mons
The Background of a Victory
An Anniversary of the Marne - 1916
Advance of the 2nd Division at the Marne
The First Historic Battle of the Rivers - Marne and Ourq
How the Little British Army Crossed the Aisne
The Battle of Verdun (special feature with extensive photo galleries)
The White Road to Verdun
French Colonials Take Douaumont
Fighting 'Neath Verdun
My Trip to Verdun - Face to Face with Pétain
An American Journalist at Verdun in 1917
An American Ambulance Driver at Verdun 1916
Winston Churchill's View on Verdun
France Triumphant at Verdun
A Canadian Reporter Visits Verdun
The Defence of Fort Vaux 
Christmas during the War
the Yuletide Season under Fire
 
Christmas 1914 in the Trenches
Christmas 1914 in the Trenches 2
Christmas 1914
Christmas 1915
A Reporter's Three War Christmasses
A Reporter's Four War Christmasses
Christmas Illustrations in the Trenches
The War Bells of Christmas by Philip Gibbs
Christmas in the Trenches by Ignatius Phayre 
Armistice and Afterwards
War is over, but not really  
.
War is Over
The Beginning and the End as seen by Philip Gibbs
The German Retreat from Belgium
A Possible Front in 1919
France on the Rhine
The March to the Rhine
Bulgaria Surrenders
If Germany Had Won the War
A British Reporter on Versailles by Hamilton Fyfe
Shall We Hang the Kaiser ?  .  
Women at War and Helping HandsMedical and Red Cross
Nurses, Civilians and Great War NGO's 
.  
Emilienne Moreau - the Lady of Loos : a Civilian Heroine / Mes Memoires (French Text)
The Execution of Nurse Edith Cavell
British Nurses in Belgium in August 1914
British Female Spy Plans Assasination of the Kaiser : A Journey to Brussels
A Nurse at the Front in Belgium and France
The Cellar House at Pervijse
Soeur Julie of Gerbevillier
A Nurse with the British Field Hospital
A British Nurse in Ostend and Antwerp
British Nurse in Russia
Touring the Trenches - a Woman's View
An American Lady Visits the Argonne Front in 1915 - by Edith Wharton
An American Lady Visits the Northern Fronts - by Edith Wharton
A Hilltop on the Marne - by Mildred Aldrich
Visiting the Marne Battlefields in December 1914 - by Mildred Aldrich
Women Under Fire - Observations
How War Seems to a Woman - by an American Ambulance Driver
Women Warriors of Death - Russian Volunteers
A Nurse at the War in 1914
Women in the World War
The Manless Homes of England
Godmothers to the Trenches
The American Ambulance Hospital in Paris
The American Ambulance Field Service in the Vosges and Verdun
Wounded in Mesopotamia
On a British Hospital Train
Memoires of a British Hospital-Orderly
An American Charity in France
Ambulance No. 10
In a Paris Hospital in 1915
A Visit to a Belgian Relief Station
A Scots Minstrel Visits Vimy Ridge
German Wounded Brought Home from the Somme
British Hospital in Macedonia
American Red Cross Doctor on the Eastern Front
British Nurses in Belgium, August 1914
Glimpses of V.A.D. Work
Fanny Goes to War
Captain Sawbones, R.A.M.C.
Shell Shock
English Canteens in France
 
Prisoners of War and Internees
Locked Up for the Duration .
Great Escapes of the Great War
German Prisoners in Britain
British Prisoners in German Camps
Belgian Prisoners in Germany
Prisoners of War in Germany
German Prisoners Behind the Front-Lines
Visiting Two German Prisoner-of-War Camps
Tommy in Germany
German Prisoners in French Hands  

Publishing and the Media

British Newsmagazines and Periodicals
French and Swiss Newsmagazines and Periodicals
Belgian Newsmagazines and Periodicals
German and Austrian Newsmagazines and Periodicals
American, Russian and Italian Newsmagazines and Periodicals
Children's Books of the Great War 1
Children's Books of the Great War 2
Children's Books of the Great War 3
French Children's Books
'les Livres Roses pour la Jeunesse de Larousse'
Advertisements : Anything to Make a Franc
French Children at War : the Glorification of Adolescent Soldiers
War Time Photography Contest
Marshall Joffre : 14 Illustrations by Guy Arnoux
'Fragments from France' : Great War Humor by Captain Bruce Bairnsfather
French and German Popular War-Time Almanachs
Magazines in the Front Lines .
 Magazine Covers and Illustrations
'The War Illustrated' : A Collection of Newsmagazine Covers
'The War Pictorial' : A Collection of Covers
Off to War with 'Newnes Illustrated Magazine'
'The Illustrated War News' : A Collection of Newsmagazine Covers
Christmas Illustrations in the Trenches
'La Collection Patrie' : A Collection of Colorful Patriotic 'Penny' Novel Covers
'Les Veillées des Chaumieres' : Pulp Fiction
'La Semaine de Suzette' : War Stories in Children's Weeklies
'La Collection Patrie' : A Second Collection of Colorful Patriotic 'Penny' Novel Covers
'La Guerre Documentée' : A Collection of Magazine Covers in Oil Paint
'L'Illustration' : a Collection of Covers from a Prestigious French Newsmagazine
'La Baionnette' : a Soldier's Magazine of Distinction
Charging Across No-Man's Land : Cavalry in Action
Les 'Images d'Epinal' : Popular Imagery
'Le Rire Rouge' : a French Humor Magazine Goes to War
Double Page Illustrations from 'Panorama de la Guerre'
'Der Krieg 1914-15 : Color Illustrations from a German Newsmagazine
'Illustrirte Zeitung : A Collection of Prints Sold for War-Time Charities
Trench Scenes from the German Lines .
Eastern Approaches
Far-Away Foreign Fronts. After all, it is a World War.
On Russian Fronts
 
Austria-Hungary Goes to War
The Two Sieges of Przemysl
 
1914
An American Journalist in East Prussia, 1914
The Great Russian Raid into East Prussia
At Tannenberg
The Truth About Tannenberg - a British View
Prasnysch and the Battles of the Masurian Lakes
On the Warsaw Front 1914
As Warsaw Sees the War
 
1915
The German-Austrian Summer Offensive in Galicia, 1915
Winter in the Carpathians in 1915
On the Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1915
The First Historic Battle of the Polish Rivers
The Tremendous Battles of the Vistula
The Fall of Warsaw (by Stanley Washburn)
The Fall of Warsaw (from a British magazine)
Von Mackensen and the Lunge for Warsaw
The Breaking of the Russian Fortress Line
An American Journalist on the Eastern Front in 1915
The Tsar in His Office
Victory at Lemberg
A Visit to the Russian Trenches
A Sketch Behind a Russian Battery
Four Weeks in the Trenches in Galicia
A Religious Service on the Field of Battle
A Night Attack in a Snow-Storm
 
1916
A British Reporter with the Caucasian Cavalry
The Summer Offensive of 1916
The Russian Drive into Galicia under Brussiloff
The Onslaught in Galicia
An American Reporter Behind the Russian Front (by John Reed)
An Adventurous Journey to Russia - by Hamilton Fyfe
What I Saw in Poland
A Week with the Russian Army
Russia Organizing for Victory
 
1917
Russia After the Revolution by Hamilton Fyfe
From Kieff to Vladivostok
An Inside View of Russia in War Time
Russian Retirement and Its Sequel in 1917
The Events of the Russian Revolution
Caucasus Front
 . Russia's Hammer Stroke at Erzerum
The Fall of Erzerum
The Advance on Erzerum
A British Reporter with the Caucasian Cavalry
British Armored Cars in the Caucasus
The Train de Bargigli
British Nurse in Russia
American Red Cross Doctor on the Eastern Front
An American Journalist Visits Austro-Hungarian Hospitals
An American Journalist on the Galician Front
Hunting Cossacks with the Austrian Cavalry
Fighting with the Russian Army
The Russian Advance
Four Days Under Russian Fire
The Far East and Africa
The Siege of Tsing-Tao (new material added) 
.  
The Defence of India
Driving the Germans from South-West Africa
Our Escape from German South-West Africa
In the African Bush
The Voyage of the 'Emden' - from the Seven Seas to the Arabian Desert
The Career of the "Emden
How Captain J. C. T. Glossop, Destroyed the German Cruiser "Emden"
How Botha Saved the Union in South Africa
General Botha's Victorious Campaign
Britain's Conquest of the German Cameroon  
.  
Fighting Johnny Turk in the Ottoman Empire
 .
Conquering the Hellespont : the Allies on the Dardanelles
Constantinople
An Americain Journalist with the Turks at Gallipoli
The Campaign in Mesopotamia to the Fall of Kut
The First Battle of Kut
Highlanders in Mesopotamia
Wounded on Chocolate Hill
Watering the Regiment in Mesopotamia
River Warfare in Mesopotamia
Wounded in Mesopotamia
With the French Foreign Legion in Gallipoli
Trenching at Gallipoli
A Diary from the Dardanelles
Capturing Jerusalem and Palestine
What Really Happened at Kut ?
The Turks Attack the Suez Canal
The Senussi
Outwitting the Turks
The Memorable Desert Battle for Egypt
The Fight for the Garden of Eden
In the Balkans
 
The Fall of Bukarest as Seen by a British Journalist (by British journalist Hamilton Fyfe)
Memories of Rumania (by British journalist Hamilton Fyfe)
Destroying the Oil-Wells in Rumania
Our New Ally Rumania
British Medical Officer in Serbia
An American Women in Serbia
Serbia in its Darkest Hour
Bulgaria Surrenders
British Hospital in Macedonia
An American Journalist in Serbia (by John Reed)
Fighting for Serbia
The Tragic Glory of Serbia's Last Stand
The Resurrection of the Immortal Serb
A Serbian Supper-Party
Atrocties in Serbia
German Cavalry Attacks in the Dobrudscha
In the Alpine Snows
.
Battle in the Snow
An American Journalist on the Italian Front
American Aid to Italy
On the Alpine Peaks with the Italians
Campaigns Above the Snow Line
The Garibaldi Fight Again for Freedom
Blowing Up the Castelletto
Wonders of the Teleferica
How I Saw the Fighting for Gorizia 
The War in Color
Color Photos of the French Military
(more than 80 pre-war photographs in color)
The Battle of the Marne in Orignal Color Photos
(color photos from a war-time serial publication)
The Battle of Verdun in Original Color Photos
(color photos from a war-time publication)
 
Machines of War
In the air, on land and at sea
Conflict in the Clouds
The Flying Fighting-men
Spotting in an Observation Balloon
An American Journalist in a German Observation Balloon
Duel in the Clouds
Anti-Aircraft Fire in 1915
Triumph of the Aeropane in Warfare
A Zeppelin Joy-Ride
A Tale of the Canadian Flying Corps
An Airman's Adventures - by 'Nighthawk'
The Lafayette Escadrlle
The Death of von Richthofen
'Zepp's' over London
Sharks of the Air - Zeppelins over Britain
The Passing of a Zeppelin
Knights of the Air — Frenchmen Who Defy Death
A Bombing Expedition with the British Air Service
Tanks in Action : a Series of Illustrations from 'La Guerre Documentée'
My Adventures in a Tank
With the Tanks
Description of a Tank Battle
The Coming of the Tanks
Triumph of the Tanks at Cambrai
The Only Way at Cambrai
Tales of the Tanks
A Tank and Two Crosses
Cruising in a Tank
A True Story of the Tanks
Tommy in a Tank: a Comedy of Terrors
The Goliath Gun : the Austrian 42 cm Mobile Siege Howitzer
Mademoiselle 'Soixante-Quinze' - The French 75 mm Artillery Piece
The "75" - Marvel of Modern Quick-Firers
French Heavy Artillery Illustrations
The Insatiable Hunger of the Guns
A Great War Cruise Missile
Color Paintings of German U-boats
The Truth About Jutland
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Destruction of the Lusitania
The Deathless Story of the Lusitania
British Sub In the Golden Horn
The Zeebrugge Raid 01
The Zeebrugge Raid 02  .
Special Features
Paris at War / Paris Fortifications
(with extensive text and illustration galleries from the mobilization in 1914 to the Victory Parade in 1919)
The Battle of Verdun
(the battlefield as seen by Great War newsmagazines - extensive collection of magazine photos)
French Children at War
(the glorification of adolescent soldiers)
August 1914 in Brussels : Mobilization and Occupation
(with text and photo galleries)
The Roses of No-Man's Land : Nurses in the Great War
(with extensive illustration galleries and several texts)
Uniforms / Color Photos
(a collection of colorful drawings and illustrations of all combatants) (1911 color photos)
Hail to the Chiefs : Portraits of Allied Generals / Portraits of German Generals and Admirals
(the men who gave the orders behind the Front) 
Special Interest Reporting
from wartime magazines and newspapers : in-depth, technical and human interest articles
 
Everyday Life on the Western Front
War-Horses for the British Army
How the Horse was Cared for at the Front
How British Wounded Were Brought Home
Making Barbed Wire
Barbed Wire
Finding Land Mines by Sound
The Garbage of War : Recycling War Material
Salvaging War Material
British Army Salvage Corps
On Fortifications
The Hand Grenade in War
The Tunnels of Arras
Colored Workers with the Allied Armies
Soldier's Superstitions
Living in Mud
Midnight Trench Raids / Going on a Night Raid / In the Darkest Hours
War by Night
Going on a Daylight Raid / Raids on Winter Nights
Flamethrowers in Warfare
The Dispatch Rider
A British View of the Hindenburg Line
Oxford Man with the Dispatch-Riders
A Bishop at the Front
Body Armor in the Trenches
Sniping the Sniper
Life in Dug-Outs
Underground Quarter
The Terrible Game of Mine & Counter-Mine
Tunneling Under Enemy Lines
Overseas Dominion Tunnelers
Demobilizing the British Army
A Night March
Carrying on at the Old Hotel
At Army Headquarters
British Howitzers
The Work of the Pioneers
British Machine Guns
Trench Warfare in 1914
Trench Warfare in 1915
Leading an Attack
How the ';Big Push' is Prepared
Mines and Craters on the Western Front
Moving a Battery by Night
How Lieutenant Smyth, of the 15th Sikhs, Won the V.C
A Reporter's German Helmet
What If There Had Been a Channel Tunnel ?
Will The War Change England? (by H.G. Wells)
The War of the Mind (by H.G. Wells)
Making Staff Officers for the American Expeditionary Force
The Race Question as a Cause of War
The Geography of the War
The "Padre" in the Fighting-Line
Y.M.C.A
Just for a Riband - the French Legion of Honor
Mademoiselle 'Soixante-Quinze' - The French 75 mm Artillery Piece
Evacuating French Wounded
Emilienne Moreau - the Lady of Loos : a Civilian Heroine
Garibaldi's Grandsons Fighting for France
The Little Corporal : 14 year-old French Soldier
Priests under Arms
Theodore Botrel - a Military Minstrel
Glimpses of the Soul of France 
Boy Scouts During the War
Noblesse Oblige : Europe's Crowned Heads Play Nurse
A Belgian Dispatch-Rider
Women Warriors of Death
Building a German Bunker
The Kaiser in London
Female Soldiers - a Post-War View
Portraits of Soldiers and Armies
 
Le Piou-Piou : Portrait of the French Soldier
The Poilu as I Know Him
The 'Blue Devils' - les Chasseurs Alpins
Chasseurs Alpins Described by a Spanish Journalist
Soldiers of France
Messieurs les Poilus
The Fusiliers Marins
The Death and Resurrection of the Foreign Legion
French Gallantry in the Field
The French Soldier Seen by a Spanish Journalist
The Saints of France
How France Found Her Black Legions 
The Sailors with a Rifle
The Growth of the American Army
Talking with American Combat Troops in France
The American Army in France
Alan Seeger - American Poet in the Foreign Legion
American Soldier in the Foreign Legion
Australia Seeing it Through
Australians in Combat
A Spanish Impression of the British Front
A Spanish Journalist on French and British Brotherhood
The Men in Khaki
Highlanders
Kitchener's Mob : Training the Army
British Manpower Discussion
A Description of the 'New Contemptible Little Army'
Indian Soldiers on the Western Front
Our Far-flung Empire's Fighters
The Coldstream Guards
An American Reporter with the Canadians
Canadian Machine-Gunners in Action
Cherokee Indian Officer in Canadian Battalion
The Russian Soldier
Ivan Ivanovitch
King Albert's Men
Chinese Labor Batallions on the British Front
The Rumanian Soldier
The Italian Soldier
Czechoslovak Legionnaires
Portraits of Generals and Leaders
 
A British View of General Ludendorff
An American Journalist Visits with the Kaiser
General Joffre - a British View at the Outbreak of War
General Joffre - a Spanish Journalist's View
Madame Joffre - the Generalissimo's Wife
General Foch - A Star Strategist
General de Castelnau
General Maurice Sarrail
General Sir Douglas Haig
General Sir Ian Hamilton, G.C.B.
A Portrait of General Allenby
Famous Generals - Sir E. H. Allenby, C.B.
Major-General Townshend
Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty
General Count Luigi Cadorna
A Portrait of General Alexeiff
Brusiloff: as His Sister Knows Him
Why Brusiloff Must Return
General Ivanoff
Grand Duke Nicholas
War Reputations
An American Journalist Visits with Marshall von Hindenburg
The Memoirs of Marshall von Hindenburg part 1
The Memoirs of Marshall von Hindenburg part 2
the Career of General von Falkenhayn
What Has Hindenburg Done?
Art, Artists and Illustrators of the Great War
Francois Flameng : the Landscapes of War
Francois Flameng : Images of War
Georges Scott : Myth and Realism
Lucien Jonas : Pathos, Patriotism and Religion
Louis Rémy Sabattier : Nurses, Fashion and the Home Front
'Hansi' - An Alsatian Artist
Jean Lefort : Impressionism and Watercolors
Henriot : Cartoons from L'Illustration
Victor Tardieu : Firing a French Railway Gun
Jean Droit : L'Infanterie Nouvelle
Aquarelles de Guerre de Jean Droit (French language text)
Charles Hoffbauer : 6 Months on the Somme
Woodcuts from 'La Guerre Raconté par Nos Généraux'
Reynolt : Decorative Design, a Collection of Great War Dropcaps
Ricardo Flores : a Series of Sketches
André Laffargue : Drawings of an Attack on an Enemy Trench
Raymond Desvarreaux : Behind the Lines
F. Charles Baude
Bernard Naudin : Two Drawings of French Soldiers
André Ventre : Proposal for a Monument at Fort Douamont
Henry Cheffer : Illustrations of French Heavy Artillery
Charles Hoffbauer : Trench Scenes
Georges LeRoux : Trench Scenes
From the Battlefield Sketchbook of Georges Victor-Hugo
Guy Arnoux - Marshall Joffre :14 Illustrations
Guy Arnoux : French Soldiers in 1917
J. Simont : Illustrative Realism from 'L'Illustration'
Francesque Poulbot : the French 'Our Gang' during the Great War
Georges Redon : a Moral Education for the Children of France
Eugène Damblans - la Grande Geste
Charles Louis Blombléd - Coverpages for the Tabloid Press
Josephe-Félix Bouchor - the Everyday Realism of War
Maturin Méheut- un Artiste Combattant (French language text)
Les Peintres de la Guerre (French language text)
Steinlen : Pages de Guerre (French language text)
Les Humoristes de la Guerre (French language text)
Fortunino Matania : for King and Country
Stanley Wood : Illustrations for the Working Class
R. Caton Woodville
Frederic Villiers : an Old Campaigner Goes to War for the Last Time
The Influence of the War on Art
Alfred Bastien : Panorama de l'Yser
James Thiriar : Artist with the Belgian Army
James Thiriar : Story of the War
James Thiriar : The Yser Front
André Leynen : Artist with the Belgian Army
Joe English : First Aid Drawings
Alfred Bastien : Working for the British Press
Leon Huygens - La Cagna des Artistes (French language text)
Au Pays des Héros (French language text)
The Genius of Raemaekers by Theodore Roosevelt (text only)
Felix Schwormstaedt : Illustrator for the 'Illustrirte Zeitung'
Richard Axmann : with the Austro-Hungarian Armies on the Galician Front
Alfred Roloff : Working for the Illustrierte Geschichte des Weltkrieges
Brynolf Wennerberg : the Romantic Side of the Homefront
Ernst Vollbehr : a Year on the Western Front
Georg Stroebel : on the Western Front for the Illustrirte Zeitung'
Fritz Bergen : Illustrator of Children's Books and Magazines
Albert Reich - Illustrations for Children's Books and Magazines
Albert Reich - at Verdun
C. Boessenroth : Color Paintings of German U-boats
Theodor Rocholl - in Picardy and Artois, 1915
German War-Artists - Hans von Hanef, Fritz Rhein, Eduard Thoenn
German War-Artists - Hans Meyerkassel, Friedrich Fehr, Arnold Busch, Georg Wagenfuehr
Paintings of German Cemetaries in the Carpathians
Malerei und Weltkrieg (German language text)
 
Postcards 
Flags All a Flutter : Allied Solidarity in Postcards
Colorful French Army Postcard Series
French Army Chromos
Romantic Kitsch
Waving the Flag : Vive la France
Colorful German Army Postcards
German Sweethearts
Brave Little Belgium : Around the War in 80 Postcards
Atrocity Postcards
'Types' of Soldiers : a Humorous View .
Spies, Executions and the Horrors of War
The Execution of Nurse Edith Cavell
The Martyrdom of Miss Cavell
The Execution of Cesare Battisti
Execution of a French Soldier
Tales of Spies
Tales of Female Spies
Hun Spies in France
Spies : Getting Short Shrift
Of Spies and Things
Under Eastern Eyes - Spying in the Middle-East
Atrocity Stories Illustrated
'La Belgique Heroique et Martyre' : Atrocities Illustrated
Forging Swords into Plowshares : Anti-War Books from the 1920s
Photographing the Dead : Never a Dearth of Corpses
Censored Photos in France
Censored Photos in Germany
Hermann Rex : Unpublished War Photos
Whatever Happened to Gavro Princip ?
An American Journalist Visits Austro-Hungarian Hospitals
Civilians Fleeing the Enemy
A French Mother in War Time
German Atrocities
Atrocties in Serbia
The Armenians  
The Lighter Side
Anything for a laugh : irreverant, humorous and silly things
An Itch to Scratch : Soldier's Brothels & Other Naughty Pastimes
Putting on a Show for the Troops
French Front-line Theater
Great War Gizmos : Great Ideas that Never Caught on
More Great War Gizmos - It Seemed Like a Good Idea at the Time
Dogs and Wildlife
Humor on Crutches
Music of the Heavenly Spheres : Soldier's Orchestras
Songs of the Great War
All in the Family : General-Oberst von Kluck and Lovely Grandaughter
Science Fiction of the Great War
Gas Attacks of a Different Kind : Latrine Humor
War Time Photography Contest
Home Sweet Home : Soldier's Housing Behind the Front
Grafitti and Trench Art
A Great War Cruise Missle
The Oldest Serving French and British Soldiers by the War's End
Everyday Life in the Trenches : a Series of Drawings
A Collection of War Time Cartoons from 'La Vie Parisienne'
'Fragments from France' : Great War Humor by Captain Bruce Bairnsfather
Delivering Mail : Neither Rain nor Hail nor Snow nor Artillery Barrage
Patriotic Pins and Things
Hot Dogs
Animals at War : We're All in This Together
Back to the Stone Age : Living in Quarries and Caves in Northern France
The Humor of T. Atkins
Campaigning in France - French Hospitality
The Small, the Tall and the Ugly
In Praise of Cigarettes
Flies - a Fantasy
Baby Silences a Battery
The Solace of Literature in the Trenches
Non-English Magazine Articles
Links to Other Great War Sites
Bibliography of Old and Modern Great War Books (with an extensive number of links listed by author)
A Special Bibliography of American Related War Books

Un comentariu :

Riddick spunea...


"Büyük Savaşi" - un fapt mai puţin cunoscut este că în primul război mondial am luptat şi cu trupe turceşti (otomane):

http://www.turkeyswar.com/romania.html

The decision to deploy Turkish forces for a joint campaign in Romania was not taken overnight, and it took nobody by surprise, because the Ottoman High Command had already sent troops to Galicia. The units chosen for the Romanian campaign were the VI Corps, commanded by General Hilmi Paşa; 15th Division, commanded by Lt.Col. Hamdi Bey and the 25th Division, commanded by Col. Şükrü Ali Bey. They were ordered by Enver Paşa to prepare for this campaign even before the Romanian declaration of war.

Turkish units allocated for Romania gathered in Edirne and Bakırköy (in Istanbul). The 25th Division was to be entrained to Pravade, the 15th Division to Varna and eventually both would be transferred to the meeting point of the VI Corps at Dokuzağaç, which was right at the heart of Dobruja, 50 kilometers north of the border between Romania and Bulgaria.

Mackensen was planning to launch the offensive on September 1, 1916, but it was impossible for the Turkish units to reach the front in time, due to problems in logistics and the conditions of railroads in northern Bulgaria. The first Turkish unit to arrive was the 75th Regiment of the 25th Division that reached Pravade on September 4. The entrainment was completed in two weeks, and all of the Turkish units were ready for action on September 19.

The first major action of the Turkish forces in Romania took place on September 24, when the 25th Division, with the Bulgarian cavalry on its right flank and Bulgarian 6th Division on its left flank, was ordered to attack the town of Amuzaca. The offensive began with artillery fire at 9:15 am and by 3:00 pm the 75th Regiment had entered Amuzaca. Col. Şükrü Ali Bey cabled General Toshev, the Bulgarian commander, stating that they could move further to north; however this request was denied and the Turkish units were asked to establish a defensive position there. Meanwhile, the 74th Regiment suffered severe casualties in the face of Romanian counter- attack. For the entire 25th Division, the total casualty toll of the day was 415 dead, 2226 wounded and 893 wounded. It was a pyrrhic victory for the Turks.

Realizing that the hurried invasion of Transylvania was a mistake, because it made them vulnerable against Mackensen’s offensive, Romanians were planning to gain the upper hand again in Dobruja. They established the Southern Group of Armies under the command of General Averescu, and the awaited offensive began on October 1 in both Dobruja and the Danube sectors.

Romanian attack in Dobruja was centered on the Turkish 25th Division, which was supported by the newly arrived 15th Division. After an entire day of fighting, Turks managed to keep the Romanians at a distance of two kilometers from their lines, and attempted to repulse them further back with a counter-offensive on the same night. However this was not possible because the snowfall had broken the contact between Turkish units.

Fighting in Dobruja went on for one week and three regiments of the 25th Division, 56th, 59th and 75th, fought next to each other at a frontline of ten kilometers. Romanians were driven back at a cost of 812 dead, 2893 wounded and 952 lost. Still, Turkish units were high in morale, not only because they had broken the Romanian attacks, but also because the 15th Division was now fully available for combat and General Hilmi Paşa had arrived at the front to take over the command. Meanwhile, in the Danube sector, Romanian troops had managed to cross the river between Totrakan and Russe, but the consequent offensive was a failure, forcing them to return to their original lines.


Citate din gândirea profundă a europeiştilor RO:

Radu Carp, 2012: "Iar pentru a pune această întrebare în contextul României de azi, dincolo de problema naţională sau cea a păstrării Tradiţiei şi a religiei, nu cumva orice structură federală ar conveni unui stat care, oricum am lua-o, se află şi se va afla la periferia geografică a Europei ? O Românie parte a unui stat federal care să aibă aceeaşi pondere cu orice alt stat membru… ar fi sau nu în interesul naţional ? Ori este cumva în interesul naţional să menţinem aceeaşi elită birocratică necompetitivă care se auto-regenerează tocmai pentru că ne aflăm la periferie şi undele de şoc ale unui model mai eficient de organizare nu mai sunt aproape deloc resimţite ? Suveranitatea pe care unii dintre noi sunt gata să o apere cu preţul vieţii nu este nimic altceva decât un concept determinat istoric, născut pentru a legitima modelul statului centralizat împotriva unor ameninţări externe şi contestări interne".

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