18 iunie 2019

"Reformele în cadrul sistemului" nu ies tocmai conform planului

În filmul lui István Szabó (Colonelul Redl, 1985) evenimentele nu sunt redate fidel, dar se transmite atmosfera tensionată din preajma primului război mondial.

Redl cocea deja viitoarea trădare, când i s-a încredinţat (în... film!) o misiune specială, care urma să servească "reformelor în cadrul sistemului". Rusia primise de la Redl deja din 1913 principalele secrete militare ale Austro-Ungariei, fapt care a explicat eşecul iniţial austro-ungar din 1914-1915.

4 comentarii :

Riddick spunea...

Alfred Redl English sub

(comentariu) Emil Singer: Perfect tough film. An addition.Director istvan Szabo was a covered secret agent in 70's-80's in Hungarian communist dictature. He disclosed his depressing secret only 2003 in public. This film about betrayal and his remorse.



Riddick spunea...

Did the Habsburg Elite order the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand because of his views on equality? Was Serbia the fall guy?

Luka Trkanjec, Professional Philosoraptor

Good question. While Serbia definitely was the fall guy, I wouldn't go so far as to say that Austria-Hungary murdered its own future emperor. Certainly, a sigh of collective relief was breathed by the warmongering circles of Vienna around Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, now that the cautious anti-war Archduke bit the bullet. No doubt that the Magyar magnates in Budapest were also celebrating the demise of the hated heir presumptive, who was intent on federalizing entire Monarchy, at the expense of Greater Hungary. And it is even said, supposedly, that the elderly emperor Franz Joseph himself, upon receiving the news on the death of his irksome nephew, exclaimed “Thank God, the Monarchy is saved!”

But the thing is, I don’t see Habsburg fingertips anywhere on Sarajevo assassination. The culprit behind that deed was the Black Hand - i.e., “Unification or death” as they were officially called - a Serbian paramilitary terrorist group, which was known to, although not sanctioned by the Serbian government. Indeed, they were very displeased by its prime minister Nikola Pašić, who himself may have been on their death-list. Their founder was the Serbian colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević “Apis”, who in 1903 organized the May putsch, in which the pro-German Obrenović dynasty was replaced by pro-Russian Karađorđevićs’ rule over Serbia. Therefore, much more probable is that the Black Hand was, in fact, a hand of Okhrana, tzarist secret service of Imperial Russia. These were also known for working outside the knowledge and sanction of official government, and from autumn 1913, were subjected to a crackdown of most of their operations in Russia. An unruly secret service of vast empire, being threatened with closure - sounds like a perfect culprit for starting a war to preserve their hold on power!

But even more suspicious, IMHO, was Dimitrijević’s nickname, “Apis”, which smacks of Freemasonry. The very beginning of 20th century saw the spread of Grand Orient masonic lodges through South-Slavic lands of Austria-Hungary, and with them came the increased spread of Yugoslav ideas - Yugoslav in sense of liberating and uniting all South Slavic peoples under the rule of Belgrade, the Piedmont of Balkans, as it was lauded. Not much more can be said of this, without dwelling into obscure conspiracy theories, which will then lead us to inevitable conclusion that it was all planned and executed by George Soros.

However, I will say that the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, far from an isolated incident, actually fit a pattern that was occurring through Europe during those years. Prominent personas and politicians were being targeted, who could all interfere with a start of a continent-wide war:  [...]

Riddick spunea...

- Jean Jaurès, the pro-German and anti-Russian French socialist leader, was murdered by a random fanatic on the very eve of WWI, in July of 1914. He was an outspoken anti-militarist who, together with his German comrades, planned for an European wide general strike to deter great powers from armed conflict.

- Grigori Rasputin, the Russian mad monk with an unduly influence over tzar Nicholas and his family, was stabbed in the stomach by some random woman in July 1914, and barely survived. For all the supposed debauchery and obscurantism that are flaunted as his legacy today, Rasputin had one much more important characteristic: he was decidedly anti-war, and warned tzar repeatedly to stay out of conflict.

- George I, King of Greece, was killed in 1913 by a random madman. His victories in First Balkan War made him popular with people again, to the detriment of his political opponents, the prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos and certain high-ranking army circles. Consequently, these were the ones who pushed for Greece’s entry into WWI, against George’s more cautious successor, Constantine I, who wanted to remain neutral.

- Pyotr Stolypin, the Dresden-born Prime Minister of Russia, was gunned down in 1911, by a random revolutionary, who would later be revealed as Okhrana’s double-agent. Stolypin was Russian counterpart of Franz Ferdinand: a liberal monarchist pushing for internal reforms rather than external conflicts.

- Alexander Obrenović, King of Serbia, was brutally murdered with his wife in 1903, by a group of army officers lead by “Apis” himself. Obrenović dynasty was cautiously pro-German in their outlook, much more than the succeeding pro-Russian Karađorđević dynasty.

- Umberto Savoy, King of Italy, was killed in 1900 by a random anarchist. He was also pro-German, bringing Italy in Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria - and he would probably kept her commitment to it, had he lived to see the beginning of war.

Finally, not an actual assassination, but a political one, happened in Papal conclave of 1903. The most favored candidate for a new pope was the diplomatic-savvy cardinal Mariano Rampolla. His election was blocked by a direct veto from emperor Franz Joseph himself, and instead an inexperienced conservative simpleton Giuseppe Sarto was elected as new pope Pius X. His bungling, reactionary and anti-modernist policies managed to do impossible: leave Vatican diplomatically isolated at the eve of WWI!

So I think that Franz Ferdinand’s murder should also be considered in this context, as removing a powerful peacemaker from the scene, rather than igniting the actual conflict. Because, ultimately, the assassination of Sarajevo did not really start the WWI, as much as the popular history would like to have a simplistic cause-and-effect solution. In the ensuing July Crisis of 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia after giving it an 10-point ultimatum; which the Serbian government accepted fully in the end (yes, fully: even the disputed articles 5–6 eventually!); only to find Austrians replying: “Sorry, can’t talk anymore, we’re in a war!” And in the meantime, both Germany and Russia looked to Great Britain for guidance. Because Germany was unwilling to fight Russia that had Britain on its side, while Russia was unwilling to fight Germany without Britain on its side. And the British, on the third hand, were trying to goad their two main rivals into destroying each other, but hopefully without themselves getting involved into a continent-wide clusterfuck.

So in the end, the biggest conflict of European history came about because everyone was just too smart for their own good.


Riddick spunea...


Citate din gândirea profundă a europeiştilor RO

Andrei Pleşu, 2002: "Criteriul unificării e, însă, deocamdată, unul predominant economic şi financiar. Europa unită e - sau tinde să fie - o piaţă bine organizată. Se imaginează o sumedenie de facilităţi comerciale, monetare, vamale, care să facă viaţa întreprinzătorilor mai uşoară şi pe aceea a europenilor mai geometrică. Încercarea nu e lipsită de interes şi a dat deja rezultate semnificative. Întrebarea care se pune e în ce măsura această reformă mai curând administrativă e la înălţimea proiectului politic şi spiritual numit "unificarea europeană".

Postări populare (nu P.P.E. !):